Blueberry It shows excellent development in soils with good drainage, sandy-loam acid and organic matter above 3%. The ideal soil pH is 4.5, but if the organic matter in the soil is high, it can tolerate pH between 3.8 and 5.5.
Blueberry It shows excellent development in soils with good drainage, sandy-loam acid and organic matter above 3%. The ideal soil pH is 4.5, but if the organic matter in the soil is high, it can tolerate pH between 3.8 and 5.5.
Soil analysis should be done at least 6 months before the garden to be grown blueberry. Entrepreneurs who want to grow blueberries must first find the suitable soil. The most important factor to be considered at this point is soil analysis. According to the condition of the soil analysis to be performed in specialized laboratories, a garden installation should be made.
The ph value of the soil should be between 4.2 and 5.5. If there are values below or above these values, you can adapt it to the soil with some interventions. But at this point, the analysis report is very important, that is, the soil analysis report that will guide us. If necessary, it is recommended to apply sulfur 6 months in advance to regulate the ph of the soil. You may need to reinforce some elements that are not only in the soil, but also in the soil that is needed by the sapling, not 6 months ago. In soils with soil pH above 7, modifications and interventions to soil will not work. This is both a waste of time and money. If the ph value of the garden where the blueberry planting will be made is below 4, you can apply lime. Blueberry loves acidic soil so ph value should be between 4.2 and 5.5. Marsh and very wet soils are not suitable for blueberry growing. Blueberry drainage definitely does not like bad soil, if there is a drainage problem in the garden, this problem should be eliminated with various materials. In gardens with ground water problems, blueberry is seriously damaged, and the bobbin system must be applied in these gardens. Blueberry loves sandy loamy soils. Blueberry loves organic rich and very acidic soils in terms of vitamins and minerals and shows good development in those soils. If there is a problem with organicness in the garden, it should be composted with various materials and applied to the blueberry garden. The ideal soil pH value for the blueberry garden is 4.5. Iron and zinc deficiency may occur in gardens with a high pH value, which negatively affects the development of blueberry seedlings.
The safety of the garden before the blueberry garden plant is at least as important a factor as soil analysis.
One of the biggest problems of the blueberry growers is that they spend so much effort and money and that the blueberry seedlings can be damaged due to some reasons such as human, wild animals, natural disasters.
While the garden is being established, it should be ensured that the garden is protected against wild animals such as pigs, deer, mountain goats or stables with steel wires, it is recommended that these wires are covered with plastic because of their longevity. These animals entering the blueberry garden can cause serious damage to the saplings or fruits. In some gardens, the net is covered with a net to protect it from birds and excessive sun. Thus, the net continues to work, especially since it reduces the effect of the sun at noon and the fruits become less soft, thereby preventing loss of labor.
Producers who invest heavily in economics need to protect their facilities with security personnel and security cameras in their facilities to protect them from malicious people. In this way, you will also protect your facility against theft incidents.
No matter which branch of agriculture you deal with, your garden can always be exposed to disasters such as hail, flood, excessive snowfall or frost. However, before establishing a blueberry garden, we need to analyze the area we plan to establish a garden and obtain information about the region from the environmental farmers so that we can have the opportunity to take precautions against possible natural disaster risks in the future, even if the risk situation of the region is high, if necessary we give up.
Another danger is the areas that receive excessive wind. In these regions, blueberry cultivation is difficult and costly, and in these gardens, the seedlings must be prevented from drying out by establishing wind breakers. Since setting up a wind break in the blueberry garden may cause cost problems, it is not recommended to plant a garden in these regions.
Our recommendation to our producer friends who will be making blueberry farming is that they get support from competent experts who understand this business before starting this business. You can be damaged both in time and financially with information collected from various sites with hearsay information.
When setting up a blueberry garden, we should be very careful about the blueberry seedlings that you will use in your garden and by taking the opinions of the experts, you should decide on the kind of sapling, only the people whose purpose is to sell seedlings. We have to consider the same criteria in the selection of saplings, just as we build the garden considering the factors of the region such as climate geography and logistics. In addition to these criteria, we should also consider the characteristics of blueberry varieties. These comprise criteria such as ripening period, harvest times, market requests. There are tens of varieties of blueberries in the world. You can see some of the varieties that have been tried and succeeded in our country and established closing gardens in the Blueberry section.
After determining the garden where the cultivation will be made, the preparation phase of the garden is started. The points to be considered at this point are soil values and the fight against weeds.
Garden preparation is done by adding various fertilizers, sulfur and organic substances, if necessary, according to soil analysis reports. The garden must be completely free from weeds and weeds, otherwise this may be a serious burden for you in the future. If the garden is a sloping garden, it is recommended to make a terracing system, so that the garden will be more organized against natural disasters such as storm, and it will provide more convenient harvesting during the harvest period, and the risk of flooding will be reduced to a minimum in areas with abundant rainfall. However, when making a terrace system, make sure that the terraces are slightly inclined, this will prevent the terraces from being damaged against the floods coming from above.
If the garden will be installed on a flat land, a bobbin system must be made. It is much easier to combat weed in this system. The tubes are covered with a mulch cover so that you can save the seedlings from the grass, while you mow the grass between them by machine before harvesting. In addition, since floods are more common in flat lands, seedlings are protected from flooding in the bobbin system.
Between the rows, if it is not harvested by machine, it is between 2 mt and 2.50 mt. The row is between 1 mt and 1.50 mt.
If machine harvest is to be made (it cannot be done on terracing) If the row is between 1 mt, it must be 3 mt.
In order for the machine to be harvested to be harvested economically to meet the costs, it must be at least 70 acres in size.
When arranging the rows in the garden, it should be given importance that the sun rays enter the rows, so that the sun rays that need all the saplings should be entered from every angle.
After installing the Terrace or Spools, the seedlings pits are opened 6 months in advance and the materials deemed necessary according to the soil analysis report are mixed in the pit and the soil is provided to be aerated. During this period until planting seedlings, you rest the garden.
Before planting seedlings, you should definitely install the irrigation system. Because working with pipes in the garden after planting seedlings can damage seedlings. Planting time of the seedlings should be autumn and spring, although the tubular seedlings can be planted for 12 months, the soil temperature desired by the roots is in the autumn and spring periods.
When choosing Blueberry seedlings to be planted in the garden, considering the conditions of the geography where the garden is located, Blueberry varieties should be selected and the selected seedlings should be at least 50-60 cm in size, 2 or 3-year-old self-fertile viruses.
Blueberry seedlings to be planted are planted in the planting pit together with soil mixed with fertilizer burnt to the depth of the neck or peat mixed with soil. What must be given life water, planted blueberries. In order to keep the roots of the plant moist, natural materials are placed at the bottom, such as pine bark tree leaves, nut bark, wood shavings. If it is going to be planted in the fall, piles of 1-1.50 mt long next to the blueberries are tied to those piles, thus preventing the seedlings from being damaged when it snows.
Irrigation system in blueberry cultivation is very important especially in the first two years after planting.
Irrigation systems must be installed and used in all regions of our country, especially in the eastern Black Sea, except for high rainfall and humid areas. This plant is very sensitive to drought, can not withstand thirst, it is decided how to set up an irrigation system according to the climatic conditions of the garden where the irrigation system will be installed and the region in which it is located. At this point, two types of irrigation systems can be installed.
1. Sprinkler Irrigation
This irrigation system can be used mostly in regions with the risk of late spring frost. It is very useful to use it when the temperature drops to a dangerous level in order to avoid damaging the flowers of the plant during frost nights. It can be used easily in normal days when there is no water, frost danger.
2. Drip Irrigation
The most preferred irrigation in blueberry cultivation is drip irrigation system. It is a great method especially to prevent waste of water. You get maximum benefit with minimum amount of water. In addition, in liquid fertilizers you will add to irrigation water, you can mix it with irrigation water through fertilizer tanks and give it more economically and faster by drip. You can apply drip pipes in one row to the root of the plant.
You should definitely install one of these systems in your garden, otherwise the development will stop, the yield will decrease, the seedlings will go to the drying point and all your efforts and money will be wasted. Irrigation system is a job that needs to be done while setting up a blueberry garden without meeting the seedlings with the soil.
Blueberries need an average of 2500 mm of water per year. It needs most of the amount of water in the summer months when the weather gets warmer. Especially, it should not be left without water between June, which is the development period of blueberry, and September. The best time for irrigation is early in the morning. Irrigation may be sufficient for up to 60 minutes a day. At this point, the quality of irrigation water is also very important, the pH of the water should be low and it should be clean drinking water. Due to timely watering with quality water, you will both grow healthy blueberry plants and form the buds of the next year, and ensure that your blueberry fruits are large and delicious during the harvest period. In this way, your fruits will be more popular in marketing and your market share will increase./p>
Weed struggle in blueberry cultivation begins before planting the seedlings, and as long as the garden continues, the fight against weed continues. Many growers do not take the fight against weeds seriously before constructing a garden plant and experience the weed’s pressure on the garden when it gets involved. Therefore, in this article, we will try to guide our garden plant to our planned side friends.
Since this plant has a superficial root structure and needs food very often, weeds compete with this plant and if it does not get the nutrients it needs due to weeds, the development stops and yield decreases considerably. Especially broad-leaved herbs and woody herbs compete with this plant as water and nutrients, in this case, blueberries are weak, development stops, they are negatively affected.
The best way to combat weeds is mulching. Various herbicides are also used in weed control, but it is not a preferred method. Mulching is also applied in two methods, the first of which is the use of mulch cover over the row, and it is a very effective method used in the world. The mulching cover in the sack structure laid on the row keeps the bottom of the plant moist due to its moist structure, but prevents the emergence of weeds, and it has a lifetime of 5-6 years.
The second method is to mulch about 20 cm thick using natural materials on the rows. This method is applied in some regions, but not in some regions. This method has many advantages over mulching cover. The biggest advantage is that the rotting materials are aerating the soil over time, organic fertilizer becomes the soil moist, and it is useful in weed control.
You can keep the blueberry rows under control by mowing grass that is finished from time to time.
We would like to remind that growers producing organic blueberries, in particular, use natural materials to combat the weeds in their gardens.
Blueberry fertilizer request should be evaluated according to the soil analysis result and a fertilization program should be made according to this report. Fertilization is very important in blueberry cultivation, this plant gradually but often requires fertilization.
Especially, ammonium sulfate (21N) is very fond of sugar fertilizers with its popular term, and this fertilizer also decreases the pH and increases the soil acid ratio. This fertilizer is not recommended if the soil pH is too low. Instead, urea with the highest nitrogen rate fertilizer should be used.
You can apply the fertilizer applications by adding it to the irrigation system or by throwing it directly to the plant bottoms. It is advantageous in terms of time to apply with the irrigation system, it quickly penetrates the plant and is more economical in terms of work force. You don’t have to run a lot of staff in the garden. After organic fertilizer application every 2 years, soil organic matter values and pH should be checked by soil analysis.
The amount of fertilizer applied is 0.90 g per plant in the year after planting.
In the second year 0.90 g three equally March 0.30 g, April 0.30 g, May 0.30 g
In the third year 0.105 g three equally March 0.35 g, April 0.35 g, May 0.35 g
Fourth year 0.120 g three equally March 0.40 g, April 0.40 g, May 0.40 g
In the fifth and later years, 0.150 g three equally march 0.50 g, April 0.50 g, May 0.50 g
According to the season of this season, this application may rock for 1 month to June, due to global warming, there may be a time difference in fertilization since it is early spring or late warming of the weather. According to the soil analysis report, you can know the animal manure burnt, which means that it has been kept in a dry environment for at least 1 year. Only because it is very salty, you should not have chicken manure and you should pay attention to it. While applying fertilizer, you should avoid applying to the root part of Bilberry, you should apply it around an average mixture. And this is unfortunately a problem that we often encounter.
Compounds will be composted in the blueberry garden with mulch and natural materials made for weed control. It should not be forgotten that blueberry is very sensitive to excess fertilization. Blueberry deaths can occur when you over-fertilize.
Blueberry harvesting takes place in two ways. 1. Harvesting by hand procedure 2. Machine harvesting. It is possible to buy products from an average of 1 acre blueberry garden between 1000 kg and 2000 kg.
In our country, manual harvesting is carried out by hand due to the small size of the gardens and the lack of flat lands especially in the Black Sea region and the land conditions where the harvesting machines cannot work. In our country, the harvest starts as the first week of June and continues until the middle of August according to the type of plant (early, middle, and late). This means that the average harvest lasts about a month and a half. The worker who will collect the fruit by hand should collect it in containers made of light material that he ties to his waist or neck, so that it works both comfortably and the collected fruits are better quality. Harvesting fruits should not start before they are fully ripe, which is an important factor affecting the value of your product in the market. When the fruits turn red from red to dark purple, they should be started after the taste has matured. Fruits collected before ripening continue to ripen after picking, but not at the desired quality. You should be careful not to collect the grains that did not occur while collecting fruits. If the fruits will be offered for fresh consumption, it will be more accurate to collect maximum 0.500 gr waterfalls in containers, which will provide better quality and longer shelf life. Although this fruit is hard, it is very sensitive to hot weather. If there are no shades in the garden (it is very costly), the harvest should be started in the western Black Sea and Marmara regions in the early hours of the morning and the harvest should not be done between 12-15 in the afternoon, because the fruit becomes soft and the shelf life is shortened during the hours when the temperature is at its peak. Even before leaving the garden, the fruits can spoil. Harvest should not be done in rainy weather. Blueberries collected during harvesting should be taken to the cold storage and kept pre-cooled immediately if possible. If not possible, they should be kept in relatively cool shade places in the garden. A worker collects an average of 25 kg of blueberries per day, which varies depending on the product’s abundance and shape.
Before establishing the blueberry garden, it should start its investment by considering the harvest time. During the harvest, the labor potential of the region, pre-cooling facilities, and the cold chain and logistics facilities for the transportation of harvested fruits to the market should be calculated in advance and the investment should be made in line with these values. The final of blueberry harvesting blueberry cultivation is the equivalent of all labor and the feast of this business.
Blueberry pruning With regular pruning in the blueberry garden, you ensure the continuity of healthy and young branches, which will also mean that you get large and abundant fruit. This will also enable your product to find buyers at a better price in the market. In the blueberry market, customers are especially in demand for large fruits. With the right pruning, you can get quality blueberry berries. The trick of a healthy and productive blueberry garden is with the right pruning.
Combating diseases and pests in blueberry cultivation begins with choosing healthy and certified seedlings while establishing a garden. In this struggle, attention and patience are an important factor for success. In fact, this plant is highly resistant to diseases.
The most common diseases are fungal diseases. The first of the most practical and precise methods of getting rid of diseases is the pruning of diseased seedlings. The pruned branches should be removed from the garden and burned in a remote place, and their destruction should be ensured. Despite this, if it is not possible to fight against diseases, fungicide should be applied in the garden. Various fungal diseases are among the most important diseases. The most familiar and practical measure that can be taken against this is beneficial in preventing this disease by ensuring that the bottom of the seedlings are ventilated and by making a garden facility where the seedlings can get sun as much as possible. Especially young shoots are very sensitive to such diseases.
The most difficult to combat diseases in the garden are virus diseases, unfortunately, results that cannot be compensated can be encountered. If success is not achieved in virus diseases, loss of seedlings in the garden is inevitable. There are gardens in the world that are completely destroyed due to the virus.
There are many pests in nature that can damage the plant. These can be listed as maggots, caterpillars, lice, insects, birds and rodents, respectively. Combating these pests is really difficult and you should be careful not to harm nature and plant while giving this fight. In particular, you should use pesticides that will not harm the environment and fruit. Often you need to observe the garden and sometimes intervene before it is late. Since birds love this fruit, they cause serious losses in the crop for this purpose. Thanks to this, you will protect the gardens against birds.
You can produce blueberry seedlings in many ways. We can list them as seed reproduction, steel reproduction, tissue culture reproduction. The factor that determines these methods depends on whether the people who will make the replication will replicate hobbyly or commercially. Commercial replicas are subject to permission You can reproduce commercially only after obtaining permissions from the required places and paying copyright. Steel replication comes first among the methods used in replication.
Care should be taken to ensure that the steeling material to be used in steel replication is healthy and free from diseases. Replication in hygienic environments is very important for the result. It is an important detail to know the types of the names of the steels. Steels are also divided into two among themselves, these are hardwood steels and softwood steels.
Hard wood steels
Hardwood steels are determined from the healthy and well-defined main body before the plants go to sleep in the winter and when taken into sleep mode in the winter, the pencil is taken from the main body. You should be careful that the imported steel is also the eye of the leaf. The materials to be used in replication must be disinfected, otherwise fungal diseases may occur. The ratio of salt and water should not be high in the water used in replication, so it is useful to analyze the water.
Soft wood steels are taken from the main branch, which is healthy and specific, in the first spring period, after the leaves are fully opened, the leaf is cut in half, and it is taken to the pillows made of perlite and stream sand, and it is tried to be rooted at appropriate humidity and temperature. Drainage is very important in pillows. It is necessary to protect it from rain especially, these steels will cause various diseases. Softwood steels need serious moisture, so misting is required in the greenhouse.
Reproduction by seed
Reproduction with seeds is not recommended because blueberries reproduced with seeds are wild and have no commercial value.
Reproduction by tissue culture
Currently, the most reliable, healthy and fast result of the world is obtained from blueberry seedlings produced by the tissue culture method. In the laboratory, healthy and always plants that can be planted towards the name of the virus free of special mixtures and hormones of the parts taken from healthy and correct rootstocks in ultra hygienic environments are grown.
As a result, it should be used in blueberry production, because it is commercially advantageous and the most reliable method for healthy gardening is the tissue culture method.
Blueberry growers can reproduce with steel to meet their needs in their own gardens. It is a difficult but feasible method.